China, Qianlong mark and of the period, dated to the 10th year, corresponding to AD 1745
H. 31,5 cm / 21.22 kg
Heavily cast with rounded sides and suspended from a gilt handle formed by geometric scrolls, the body decorated in relief with five alternating bands of stylised trigrams and spiralling bosses, interrupted on each side by a rectangular panel, each enclosing an inscribed tablet bordered by ruyi-head scrolls and above a small waisted lotus base, one tablet inscribed with a seven-character mark, 大清乾隆拾年製, 'made in the 10th year of the Qianlong emperor's reign', the other with a three-character mark bei wuyi, which relates to a classical pitch, the lower body above the base with pairs of archaistic motifs flanking two large plain circular cartouches. Weight: 21.22 kg
Important German aristocratic private collection, assembled in China prior to 1904 and owned by the family since then
According to the Confucian classical book on the rites of the Zhou dynasty, music, along with poetry, is the most important method of educating Confucian rites. Musical instruments Bianzhong (set of chimes) made of metal together with a set of Qing (sound stones) made of stones such as jade were used for playing music in the imperial court or as a ritual especially for playing the highest-ranking court music Zhonghe Shaoyue (Imperial Ritual Music) , these were highly valued in the imperial court of the Ming and Qing periods. The tones produced by the Bianzhong and Qing were called jingshi zhi sheng (harmonic tones of metal and stone) in classical China, symbolising the elegant music according to the taste of the noble upper class. A set of bianzhong contains 16 bells of the same size and shape, suspended in a wooden frame, their intervals differentiated by the thickness of their walls. The 16 bells form a tuning system of twelve zhenglü (tones in equal steps) and four additional beilü (repeated tones with doubled wavelength).
The decoration of swirls and four abstract motifs of this bell corresponds to the decoration pattern of a bell from the Bianzhong series 'dasheng' of Emperor Huizong of the Northern Song. According to the imperial archives, Emperor Huizong had 12 series of bianzhong made with a total of 336 pieces, each series called dasheng. After the demise of the Northern Song, most of these were lost and collected in the palace collections of successive emperors. Three bronze bells from the dasheng series were in the palace collection in Qing times and may have been models for the making of these bells by the Qianlong emperor. A very similar bell, also dated to the 10th year of Qianlong's reign, but inscribed 南呂nan lü, is in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, a gift from Major Louis Livingston Seaman in 1903, museum number 03.15.3. Major Louis Livingston Seaman (1851-1932) was a military surgeon and was sent to China no later than 1900, serving among other things as private physician to Li Hongzhang (1823-1901). The bell 'bei wuyi' now offered for auction and the bell 'nanlü' in the collection of the Metrolpolitan Museum of Art should be from the same imperial Bianzhong set. Compare a complete set of sixteen bells, Qianlong, dated 1779, on a wooden frame, similarly cast with bands of trigrams and bosses but with different handles and plainer rounded curves around the lower body, in the Palace Museum, Beijing, illustrated by C. Ho and B. Bronson, Splendors of China's Forbidden City: The Glorious Reign of Emperor Qianlong, Chicago, 2004, p.52, no.43.
Minor wear, traces of use, slightly chipped
China, Qianlong-Marke und Periode, datiert 1745
H. 31,5 cm / 21.22 kg
Trommelförmiger Korpus mit Drachen-Griff in Gestalt eines gekreuzten Doppel-Ruyi, flache Mündung, im Querschnitt kreisrund. In einer Reserve in Form einer Ahnentafel Inschrift bei wuyi und umseitig Reserve in Form einer Ahnentafel mit Inschrift daqing qianlong shinian zhi (hergestellt im 10. Jahr der Qianlong Periode der Großen Qing ), weiter unten flankiert von zwei Klangscheiben in Vollmond-Form und Reserve zwischen vier abstrakten Motiven. Gewicht: 21,22 kg
Aus bedeutendem aristokratischen Besitz, vor 1904 in China gesammelt und seither in Deutschland durch Erbschaft durchgehend in derselben Familie
Gemäß dem konfuzianischen klassischen Buch über die Riten der Zhou-Dynastie ist die Musik neben Gedichten die wichtigste Methode zur Erziehung der konfuzianischen Riten. Musikinstrumente Bianzhong (Satz des Glockenspiels) aus Metall wurden zusammen mit einem Satz von Qing (Klangsteinen), die hingegen aus Steinen, wie zum Beispiel Jade zum Musikspielen im kaiserlichem Hof gefertigt oder als Ritual insbesondere für das Spielen der höchstrangigen Hofmusik Zhonghe Shaoyue (Kaiserliche Ritualmusik) verwendet , diese waren sehr geschätzt im kaiserlichen Hof der Ming- und Qing-Zeit. Die erzeugten Töne der Bianzhong und der Qing wurden als jingshi zhi sheng (harmonische Töne aus Metall und Stein) im klassischen China genannt und symbolisieren die elegante Musik gemäß dem Geschmack der vornehmen Oberschicht. Ein Satz Bianzhong beinhaltet 16 Glocke mit gleicher Größe und Form, in einem Holzgestell aufgehängt, ihre Intervalle werden durch die Stärke hrer Wandung differenziert. Die 16 Glocke bilden ein Stimmungssystem von zwölf zhenglü (Töne in gleichstufigen Tonschritten) und vier zusätzlichen beilü (wiederholte Töne mit verdoppelter Wellenlänge).
Der Dekor von Wirbeln und vier abstrakten Motiven dieser Glocke entspricht dem Dekormuster einer Glocke aus der Bianzhong-Serie 'dasheng' von Kaiser Huizong der Nördlichen Song. Gemäß dem kaiserlichen Archiv hat Kaiser Huizong 12 Serien Bianzhong mit insgesamt von 336 Stücke herstellen lassen, jede Serie heißt dasheng. Nach dem Untergang der Nördlichen Song waren diese großenteils verloren und wurden in den Palastsammlungen der nachfolgenden Kaiser gesammelt. Vier Bronzeglocken aus der Serie dasheng befanden sich in der Palastsammlung in Qing-Zeit und könnten Vorbilder für die Herstellung dieser Glocken des Qianlong-Kaisers gewesen sein. Eine sehr ähnliche Glocke, ebenfalls auf das 10. Regierungsjahr von Qianlong datiert, aber mit der Inschrift nanlü versehen, befindet sich im Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, ein Geschenk von Major Louis Livingston Seaman aus dem Jahr 1903, Inventarnummer 03.15.3. Major Louis Livingston Seaman (1851-1932) war Militärarzt und wurde spätestens im Jahr 1900 nach China gesendet, er war unter anderem als Privatarzt von Li Hongzhang (1823-1901)tätig. Die hier zur Versteigerung angebotene Glocke 'bei wuyi' und die Glocke 'nanlü' in der Sammlung des Metrolpolitan Museum of Art stammen sehr wahrscheinlich aus dem gleichem kaiserlichen Satz Bianzhong. Vergleiche einen vollständigen Satz von sechzehn Glocken, Qianlong, datiert auf das Jahr 1779, auf einem Holzrahmen, ähnlich gegossen mit Bändern von Trigrammen und Bossen, aber mit anderen Griffen und schlichteren runden Rundungen um den unteren Körper, im Palastmuseum, Peking, abgebildet von C. Ho und B. Bronson, Splendors of China's Forbidden City: The Glorious Reign of Emperor Qianlong, Chicago, 2004, S.52, Nr. 43.
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Terms & Conditions
Important notice: In order to ensure a proper execution of your bids, please make sure that your registration and bids must be submitted 48h before auction starts.
The auction is held in the name of NAGEL AUKTIONEN GmbH (hereinafter referred to as “Auctioneer”). The auctioneers act as its representative. They are publicly appointed and sworn auctioneers in accordance with § 34 Para. 5 of the Trade Regulation Act. The auction is thus a public auction within the meaning of § 383 Para. 3, p. 1 of the Civil Code.
1. Fundamentals of the auction The Auctioneer holds public auctions within the scope of §383 Paragraph 3 Sub-Clause 1 of the German Civil Code in its own name as consignee and for the account of the depositors (consignors) whose names are not disclosed. By taking part in the auction, the following auction conditions of the Auctioneer are accepted.
2. Defects a) All property items offered for auction can be viewed and inspected prior to the auction. The property items are second-hand. The catalogue descriptions are made to the best of the author’s knowledge and belief, but are for purposes of information exclusively and are not part of the contrac- tually agreed properties and condition of the items within the meaning of § 434 of the Civil Code, in particular they do not constitute guarantees within the meaning of § 443 of the Civil Code. The same applies to verbal or written information of all kinds, as well as the designation of the items when called. If an Internet catalogue is made in addition, the information in the printed version is nonethe- less authoritative. Impairments in the state of the items’ preservation are not stated in every case, so that lack of information likewise does not furnish grounds for an agreement on the quality of the items. The Auctioneer reserves the right to make corrections to catalogue information. These corrections take the form of written notices posted at the place of the auction and verbal corrections made by the Auctioneer immediately prior to the auction of the specific item. The corrected information takes the place of the catalogue descriptions. All items are offered for auction in the state in which they are found at the time of the auction. b) In the event of quality defects and defects of title claimed within 12 months after the knockdown, the Auctioneer shall undertake at his own discretion to assign his claims or to assert his claims directly against the Consignor. The condition for this is that the buyer has completely paid the bill for the auction. The costs of legal action taken against the Consignor are borne by the buyer, insofar as the Auctioneer receives no reimbursement of costs from the Consignor. The valuation of a recognized expert proving the defect and made at the expense of the buyer is necessary for the assertion of a claim for a quality defect. If claims made against the Consignor are successful, the Auctioneer shall refund only the purchase price to the buyer, matching payment with the return of the property. The buyer is still under obligation to pay the premium as compensation for the services of the Auctioneer. In all other respects, the Auctioneer shall assume no liability for quality defects and defects of title, insofar as the Auctioneer has fulfilled his obligations to exercise diligence. This shall not affect any liability of the Auctioneer for bodily harm or injury to health.
3. Bids a) Floor bids Each bidder must indicate his (her/its) name and address before the start of the auction. This holds even if he takes part in the auction as a representative. In this case, he must also indicate the name and address of the party he is representing. In cases of doubt, the bidder shall make acquisitions in his own name and for his own account. Each bidder must make a deposit before the start of the auction b) Absentee bids In order to ensure that written bids are properly executed, they must be made on the form provided for this purpose and received by the Auctioneer at least 48 hours before the start of the first day of the auction. The bidder is required to provide evidence of the receipt. For a written bid to be effective, it must contain detailed informa- tion on the person or company of the bidder as well as the lot number. A telephone number at which the bidder can regularly be reached must be indicated when the bid is made. The bid is restricted exclusively to the lot number indicated. Written bids are only used by the Auctioneer with the amount that is necessary to bid over another bid that has been made. Telephone bids will be accepted by telephoning the bidder before the desired lot is called. This is only done for lots with an estimated price of € 750.00 or more. The condition for taking part by telephone is a written notice received by the Auctioneer no later than 48 hours before the start of the first day of the auction. It is possible to make online bids at some auctions (www.auction.de); this requires a registration at least 48 hours before the start of the first day of the auction. The Auctioneer shall assume no liability for the formation or maintenance of telecommunications connections, nor for the orderly transmission and (timely) receipt of online bids to the Auctioneer. What occurs in the hall (for example, with regard to corrections as stated in Number 2 a of these Conditions) shall be authoritative for the course of the auction. Only those bids made in the hall are binding. In any case, the bidder is required to provide proof of the entry of the bid c) Handling of bids and knockdown The Auctioneer can reject bids if there are valid reasons for doing so. This applies in particular if bidders cannot furnish, at the demand of the Auctioneer, sufficient security prior to the auction commensurate with the value of the bid. If a bid is rejected, the bid made immediately prior to it shall remain binding. d) Given justified reason, the Auctioneer shall reserve the right to combine or separate lot numbers, call them out of sequence, withdraw them if there is a valid reason, or auction them off subject to reservation (UV-Zuschlag). The lot number is the number under which the items are called in the auction, listed in the auction catalogue, or offered for sale by private contract. e) The knockdown shall follow after the highest bid has been called three times. If several persons make the same bid and no higher bid is made after being called three times, the matter will be decided by drawing lots. If identical written bids are received, the knockdown will be granted to the first bid received. If there are doubts regarding whether or to whom the knockdown has been granted, or if a bid submitted on time is overlooked, or if the highest bidder wishes to withdraw his bid, the Auctioneer is entitled to withdraw the knockdown, which is thereby invalidated, and to offer the property for auction once again. Any objections against the knockdown are to be raised immediately, i.e., before the next lot is called. The Auctioneer is entitled to refuse the knockdown if there is a valid reason for doing so. f) The estimated price is normally not a limit; a knockdown may also be made below the estimated price. In order to protect the consigned property, the Auctioneer is entitled to knockdown to the consignor below the agreed limit. A reversal is made in this case. g) If the limit agreed with the consignor is not reached, or for other valid reasons, the Auctioneer is entitled to knock down subject to reservation (UV-Zuschlag). In the event of a subsequent bid equivalent to the limit, the property may be knocked down to another bidder or sold to another bidder in a subsequent sale with no further consultation being required. Bids with awards subject to reservation are binding on the bidder for 5 weeks but may be subject to change without notice by the Auctioneer. In particular, any claims of the bidder against the Auctioneer shall be excluded if the knockdown subject to reserva- tion should be unsuccessful. h) A bid will lapse if it is rejected by the Auctioneer, if the auction is closed without a knockdown, or if the property is called for auction again. An invalid overbid does not result in the previous bid being invalid. i) A knockdown called by the Auctioneer obligates the bidder to accept the item and make payment. Ownership of the auctioned property only passes to the buyer when all claims of the Auctioneer have been settled in full. The risk of fortuitous loss or fortuitous
deterioration of the property passes to the buyer simultaneously with the knockdown. j) The sale of unsold lots is part of the auction, in which interested parties place their orders for submitting bids of a specific amount in writing. The provisions of §§312b et seq. regarding distance contracts do not apply. The Auction Conditions apply analogously to the sale of unsold lots.
4. Purchase price, turnover tax a) As a rule, all deliveries are subject to a differential tax in accordance with § 25a of the German Turnover Tax Act (UStG), with a premium of 29,5% being levied on the hammer price. This premium includes statutory turnover tax on the total difference. Turnover tax is not stated separately on the invoice. Consignments which are subject to turnover tax (marked by * with the lot no.), such as those from non-EU countries, for example, are invoiced at the standard tax rate with a premium of 24,5 % being levied on the hammer price. The turnover tax is payable on the hammer price plus the premium. b) If it should be necessary to obtain CITES certificates for the purpose of granting special exemption from the prohibition of marketing objects covered by this Convention, then the cost thereof shall be borne by the purchaser. In addition, a processing fee of € 100.00 per lot as well as a flat-rate fee of € 100.00 per lot will be charged for making up the export documents. No guarantee is given that a permit will be granted (CITES, protection of species, export). c) The buyer pays half of the statutory right of stoppage according to the scale in § 26 of the German Copyright Act, as well as half of the contribution to the Artists’ Social Insurance Fund. d) Statutory turnover tax amounts at present to 19 %. Items which are marked in the catalogue with a * before the estimated price are subject to the reduced value- added tax rate of 7 % in the event that standard taxation applies. e) Tax exemption is excluded for deliveries within the European Union. In the case of export deliveries to non-EU countries, turnover tax is refunded to the buyer as soon as the export and acceptance documentation has been received by the Auctioneer. f) Invoices issued during or immediately following the auction require verification; errors excepted. A charge will be made for later changes of the invoice at the request of customers.
5. Due date, payment and default a) Buyers taking part in the auction in person must pay the final purchase price (knockdown price plus premium and turnover tax) to the Auctioneer immedi- ately following the knockdown. In the case of buyers who have submitted written or telephonic offers, the amount due is payable upon receipt of the invoice. The buyer waives the enforcement of any retention rights in connection with transactions or previous transactions conducted within the scope of the present business relationship. The buyer is only permitted to offset any counter- claims if these are undisputed or have been declared by declaratory judgment. If the buyer is an entrepreneur, he hereby waives the performance refusal right under § 320 (§ 322) of the German Civil Code. b) In the event of payment delay, private buyers (consumers) must pay default interest equivalent to 5 % of the discount rate of the European Central Bank and commercial buyers (companies), 8 % of the relevant discount rate p.a. If payment is made in foreign currency, any exchange losses and currency conversion fees must be borne by the buyer. The Auctioneer is also entitled to lodge claims against the buyer for culpable neglect of duties. After the second formal reminder, the Auctioneer is entitled to levy a default surcharge equivalent to 3 % of its total claim as compensation for damages incurred unless the buyer is able to prove that no damage or a much lower level of damages has been incurred. The costs of any litigation abroad shall be borne by the buyer, insofar as they are not reimbursable in accordance with the respective national laws. If the buyer should default on payment, the Auctioneer can withdraw from the contract after having granted an additional period of two weeks and instead of the flat-rate damage compensation amount, demand reimbursement of the specific damages incurred. These damages may also be calculated in such a way that the property item in question will be re-auctioned at another auction with a limit determined at the dutiful discretion of the Auctioneer and the defaulting buyer will be liable for any reduced proceeds in comparison with the previous auction and also for the costs of the repeat auction and including the commission and disbursements of the Auctioneer. The default- ing buyer will not be entitled to any additional proceeds in this case. His rights in connection with the previous knockdown will lapse concurrently with the new knockdown. All claims of the Auctioneer against the buyer will be due immediately in the event of delay.
6. Collecting, shipping and storing items a) The buyer is obliged to take receipt of the property items immediately after the auction. Buyers who have participated in the auction in writing or by telecommunication are obliged to collect the property items no later than 14 days after receipt of the invoice. Items purchased in an auction shall only be handed over when all outstanding accounts have been settled. b) If the buyer should be delayed in taking over the property, the Auctioneer is entitled to store the property items at the cost and risk of the buyer on its own premises or with third parties. The buyer will also bear the costs of any necessary insurance. A cost reimbursement of up to € 6.00 (plus value-added tax) per item and day or the relevant rate of the storage com- pany shall be charged for the storage. The buyer reserves the right to prove that costs have not been incurred, or not in the aforesaid amount. The date for withdrawing stored property items is to be agreed with the Auctioneer or designated third parties. c) The packing, insurance and ship- ment of auctioned items shall be made at the cost and risk of the buyer; the Auctioneer merely serves as an agent for these services. Shipping orders will only be executed if the Auctioneer or the company commissioned with this task has received the appropriate shipping order signed by the buyer and after the calculated shipping costs and all other claims of the Auctioneer have been settled.
7. Liability The Auctioneer shall only be liable for other damages to the (successful) bidder if said damages are due to deliberate or grossly negligent breach of duty by a legal representative or vicarious agent of the Auctioneer, or if the damages are due to deliberate or negligent breach of duty causing injury to life, body or health of the (successful) bidder by the Auctioneer.
8. General a) All legal relationships between the bidder or buyer and the Auctioneer are covered in these Conditions. The bidder’s or buyer’s general terms of business shall not be applicable. There are no ancillary verbal agreements. Changes must be made in writing to be effective. b) The place of fulfilment and legal venue, if such can be agreed, is exclusively Stuttgart. German laws shall apply exclusively. The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) shall not apply. c) If one or more provisions of these Assignment Conditions are wholly or partially invalid, the validity of the other provisions will remain in full force and effect. d) If the Auction Conditions are available in more than one language, the German version is exclusively authoritative. The Auctioneer shall assume no liability for incorrect translations.
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